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Environmental factors that play a role in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer have been characterized for many years. Current research into the pathophysiology of bladder cancers has begun to focus more on genetic alterations that are important in tumorigenesis. Low penetrance polymorphisms, such as N-acetyl transferase 2, glutathione S-transferase, and others have also shown to increase the risk of bladder cancer by altering the processing of environmental toxins. Additionally, Lynch syndromedoi:10.2217/fon-2017-0346 pmid:29345160 fatcat:bfkmcsnpbneoho5oqoavioriwq