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When composing Web services into scientific workflows, users often face the so-called shimming problem when connecting two related but incompatible components. The problem is addressed by inserting a special kind of adaptors, called shims, that perform appropriate data transformations to resolve data type inconsistencies. However, existing shimming techniques provide limited automation and burden users with having to define ontological mappings, generate data transformations, and even manuallydoi:10.1109/tsc.2014.2347049 fatcat:xgoajq6pebfubgvbjcuvknk44a