A survey of hybrid solar-wind energy harvesting for embedded applications

D Ramya, R Uma Maheswari, S Arunodhaya, V Marimuthu, M Vlsi Design
Copyrights © International Journal of Intellectual Advancements and Research in Engineering Computations, www.ijiarec.com   unpublished
To enable off-grid deployments of autonomous systems for extended operational durations, robust energy harvesting in the medium power range (1-10 W) is essential. supercapacitor-based solar energy harvesters have emerged as a popular alternative due to their long lifetime under repeated charge-discharge cycles, low maintenance, environmental friendliness, and energy predictability and scalability. despite their advantages, such systems are not well matched with applications that require power
more » ... hat require power continuously over their operational lifetime because solar power is unavailable during nights and severely reduced on cloudy days. for such applications, it is beneficial to combine solar power with another power source-such as wind-that exhibits complementary availability. In this paper, we present multiple solar/wind (hybrid) supercapacitor-based harvesters, leveraging existing open-source solar-only harvester designs. our designs center around three main categories that i) add wind harvesting capability to create a wind-only harvesting system, ii) use multiple harvesters for utilizing hybrid sources of power and for providing fault tolerance, or iii) use a single harvester in a time multiplexed configuration to simultaneously harvest from multiple power sources. We provide extensive experimental results to document the functionality and operational performance of a representative set of these designs. Keywords-multiple solar/wind (hybrid) supercapacitor-based harvesters, leveraging existing open-source solar-only harvester designs I INTRODUCTION Autonomously deployed embedded systems in the medium power (1-10 W) range have recently received broad attention in the literature due to their applications in numerous emerging technologies, including smart cities, environmental monitoring, agriculture, and emergency management.These applications typically employ a network of field systems in locations with no or limited power infrastructure, requiring them to incorporate an autonomous ambient power harvesting solution for a seamless operation.The appropriate energy harvesting approach for an embedded field-deployed system is primarily determined by the power requirements of the target applications. These requirements along with the most commonly harvested ambient power sources are categorized and compared. While embedded systems that operate in the (1 nW-10 mW) power range can be powered from piezoelectric, thermal, microbial, RF, wind, and solar energy harvesters, medium-power embedded systems that operate in the (1-10 W) power range rely primarily on solar, wind, or a combination of solar and wind (hybrid) energy harvesters. A rich body of energy harvester designs exists in the literature that accepts solaronly, wind-only, or hybrid solar/wind power