Spatial Analysis of Linear Structures in the Exploration of Groundwater
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
The analysis of linear structures on major geological formations plays a crucial role in resource exploration in the Inner Niger Delta. Highlighting and mapping of the large lithological units were carried out using image fusion, spectral bands (RGB coding), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and band ratio methods. The automatic extraction method of linear structures has permitted the obtaining of a structural map with 82,659 linear structures, distributed on different stratigraphic stages.
... e intensity study shows an accentuation in density over 12.52% of the total area, containing 22.02% of the linear structures. The density and nodes (intersections of fractures) formed by the linear structures on the different lithologies allowed to observe the behavior of the region's aquifers in the exploration of subsoil resources. The central density, in relation to the hydrographic network of the lowlands, shows the conditioning of the flow and retention of groundwater in the region, and in-depth fluids. The node areas and high-density linear structures, have shown an ability to have rejections in deep (pores) that favor the formation of structural traps for oil resources. various geological formations in order to help the relevant authorities to make decisions regarding underground resource exploration of the region. Data and Study Area Located in the center of Mali, the study area is approximately limited from west to east by the coordinates −6.20 • and −1.50 • , and, from south to north, by the coordinates 13.32 • and 17.34 • (Figure 1) . With an area of 131,886.607 km 2 , it is a depressed north-northwest dip zone , located in the transition zone between the Precambrian tabular of the Mandingo Plateau in the south, and the Precambrian folded of the Gourma in the north. And at northwest are accumulated the formations of continental terminal/Intercalary. The underlying primary formations include southwest/south-east oriented folds and west/east to northwest/south-east fractures that occur on the outcrops of Goundam Hills, the Bandiagara sandy plateaus, and outcrop sandstone to the south of Debo Lake. The geology of the shallow delta (flood zone) is mainly marked by continental or desert sedimentary deposits, comprising, from bottom to top, the following formations: The continental intercalary, continental terminal, and the quaternary  .