Efficient GSW-Style Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers

Jianan Zhao, Ruwei Huang, Bo Yang, Angel M. Del Rey
2021 Security and Communication Networks  
We propose a GSW-style fully homomorphic encryption scheme over the integers (FHE-OI) that is more efficient than the prior work by Benarroch et al. (PKC 2017). To reduce the expansion of ciphertexts, our scheme consists of two types of ciphertexts: integers and vectors. Moreover, the computational efficiency in the homomorphic evaluation can be improved by hybrid homomorphic operations between integers and vectors. In particular, when performing vector-integer multiplications, the evaluation
more » ... s the computational complexity of Ο γ log γ and thus outperforms all prior FHE-OI schemes. To slow down the noise growth in homomorphic multiplications, we introduce a new noise management method called sequentialization; therefore, the noise in the resulting ciphertext increases by a factor of l ⋅ poly λ rather than poly λ l in general multiplications, where l is the number of multiplications. As a result, the circuit with larger multiplicative depth can be evaluated under the same parameter settings. Finally, to further reduce the size of ciphertexts, we apply ciphertext truncation and obtain the integer ciphertext of size Ο λ log λ , thus additionally reducing the size of the vector ciphertext in Benarroch's scheme from Ο ˜ λ 4 to Ο λ 2 log 2 λ .
doi:10.1155/2021/8823787 fatcat:f76x6j7dkjhbvbeflk52vsi3qm