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A central puzzle in vision science is how perceptions that are routinely at odds with physical measurements of real world properties can arise from neural responses that nonetheless lead to effective behaviors. Here we argue that the solution depends on: (1) rejecting the assumption that the goal of vision is to recover, however imperfectly, properties of the world; and (2) replacing it with a paradigm in which perceptions reflect biological utility based on past experience rather thandoi:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00156 pmid:26635546 pmcid:PMC4649043 fatcat:7ui5fwos35ajtpp3h3eoh2i5pe