Is open bone graft always necessary when treating aseptic subtrochanteric nonunion with a reamed intramedullary nail?
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
This study aimed to compare the radiological results between closed nailing without bone graft (BG) and open nailing with BG for aseptic subtrochanteric nonunion and to determine when an open procedure with BG should be considered. In this retrospective study, we investigated patients who underwent surgical intervention for subtrochanteric nonunion between January 2008 and March 2018 in two institutions. Patients with infection, large bone defect, pathologic fracture, open fracture, previous
... acture, previous surgery using plate, and follow-up of less than 1 year were excluded. We compared the demographic details and radiological results between patients who underwent the open procedure with BG (BG group) and the closed procedure without BG (non-BG group) as a historical control, and risk factors for the failure of revision surgery were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients met the criteria and were divided into the following two groups: the BG group (n=19) who underwent open nailing with BG and the non-BG group (n=18) who underwent closed reamed nailing without BG. The mean degrees of correction of varus and flexion deformity were significantly different (p=0.001, respectively), 6.2° and 2.9° in the BG group and 4.1° and 0.6° in the non-BG group, respectively. Bony union was observed in 17 cases (89.5%) in an average of 7.4 months in the BG group and in 16 cases (88.9%) in 7.6 months in the non-BG group, with no significant differences. The factors that were significantly associated with failure of revision were atypical fracture, two or more previous surgeries, and varus and sagittal anterior angulation. The radiological results of closed reamed nailing without BG for subtrochanteric nonunion were satisfactory. In the effort of percutaneous realignment, gap reduction, and intramedullary reaming, the radiological results of closed nailing without BG were not different from those of open nailing with BG; therefore, closed procedure without BG may be an acceptable option in appropriately selected patients.