Seven new species of sponges (Porifera) from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin (SW Atlantic)

M. de S. Carvalho, D. A. Lopes, B. Cosme, E. Hajdu
2016 Helgoland Marine Research  
Deep-sea reefs and coral banks are increasingly known as highly biodiverse ecosystems where sponges constitute a significant proportion of builders and inhabitants. Albeit smaller in dimensions, Campos Basin coral mounds also harbor a rich associated fauna, whence only 16 species of sponges had been fully identified this far. Seven new species are described here, viz. Geodia garoupa sp. nov., Vulcanella stylifera sp. nov., Trachyteleia australis sp. nov., Echinostylinos brasiliensis sp. nov.,
more » ... liensis sp. nov., Xestospongia kapne sp. nov., Sympagella tabachnicki sp. nov., and Leucopsacus barracuda sp. nov. Of the 24 species of sponges known from the area, only seven were found elsewhere too, thus suggesting a possible high endemism in Campos Basin. Nevertheless, the widespread occurrence of deep reef-framework building corals along a large sector of the Brazilian coast suggests these habitats and their associated fauna may be more widespread than currently appreciated. Echinostylinos patriciae nom. nov. is proposed for the New Zealand record of E. reticulatus. which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Methods Campos Basin covers more than 100,000 km 2 between the Vitória High (20.5°S) and the Cabo Frio High (24°S) on the Brazilian continental margin. Over 70 % of it lies in depths >200 m [13] , and over 85 % of Brazilian crude oil and gas originates from this region. In 2003 PETRO-BRAS initiated a series of research projects for assessing environmental baseline data. The materials studied here were collected by box-corers, trawls and ROVs,
doi:10.1186/s10152-016-0461-z fatcat:mttnluckiva7jpmriac5niqgty