From ERS 1/2 to Sentinel-1: Subsidence Monitoring in Italy in the Last Two Decades
Frontiers in Earth Science
The use of InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) products has greatly increased in the last years because of the technological advances in terms of both acquisition sensors and processing algorithms. The development of multi-interferogram techniques and the availability of free SAR analysis tools has significantly increased the number of worldwide applications of satellite measurements for mapping and monitoring geohazards. InSAR techniques excel in determining ground deformation in
... und deformation in urban areas, where the coherence of the radar images is high, and the obtainable results are particularly reliable. Thus, measuring urban subsidence has always been one of the main targets of the InSAR analysis. In this paper, we present a brief review on the applications, in the last decades, of both single and multi-interferogram techniques to monitor ground lowering in urban areas along the Italian Peninsula. Because of its geological context, Italy is prone to slow natural subsidence phenomena sometimes aggravated and accelerated, especially along the coasts and in urbanized areas, by anthropogenic factors (i.e., groundwater overexploitation, consolidation in recent urban expansion, geothermal activities). The review will show how the interferometric data allowed the scientific community to increase the knowledge of the phenomena, map their spatial distribution, and reconstruct their temporal evolution. The final goal of the review is to demonstrate the added value of InSAR data in supporting groundwater management and urban development in Italy.