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Diabetes, a disease characterized by hyperglycemia, has a serious impact on the lives and families of patients as well as on society. Diabetes is a group of highly heterogeneous metabolic diseases that can be classified as type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or other according to the etiology. The clinical manifestations are more or less similar among the different types of diabetes, and each type is highly heterogeneous due to different pathogenic
more » ... factors. Therefore, distinguishing between various types of diabetes and defining their subtypes are major challenges hindering the precise treatment of the disease. T2D is the main type of diabetes in humans as well as the most heterogeneous. Fortunately, some studies have shown that variants of certain genes involved in monogenic diabetes also increase the risk of T2D. We hope this finding will enable breakthroughs regarding the pathogenesis of T2D and facilitate personalized treatment of the disease by exploring the function of the signal genes involved. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox A (HNF1a) is widely expressed in pancreatic b cells, the liver, the intestines, and other organs. HNF1a is highly polymorphic, but lacks a mutation hot spot. Mutations can be found at any site of the gene. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) while some others do not cause MODY3 but increase the susceptibility to T2D or GDM. The phenotypes of MODY3 caused by different SNPs also differ. MODY3 is among the most common types of MODY, which is a form of monogenic diabetes mellitus caused by a single gene mutation. Both T2D and GDM are multifactorial diseases caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Different types of diabetes mellitus have different clinical phenotypes and treatments. This review focuses on HNF1a gene polymorphisms, HNF1A-MODY3, HNF1A-associated T2D and GDM, and the related pathogenesis and treatment methods. We hope this review will provide a valuable reference for the precise and individualized treatment of diabetes caused by abnormal HNF1a by summarizing the clinical heterogeneity of blood glucose abnormalities caused by HNF1a mutation.
doi:10.3389/fendo.2022.829565.s001 fatcat:l3vdoqduo5eyznpuoqo6t722di