ACCURATE SEX DETERMINATION USING ANCIENT DNA ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS FROM DIFFERENT HISTORICAL ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES IN TURKEY
The extraction of DNA from archaeological human skeletal remains provides valuable data about past societies for anthropologists, archaeologists and palaeontologists. Traditionally, anthropological methods are limited if sex determination of infant, juvenile or fragmented human remains are examined. However, studies on ancient DNA from human remains are best way for sex determination. In represent study, two DNA extraction protocols (phenol chloroform/commercial kit) were performed. A total of
... formed. A total of 37 samples taken from the 27 skeletons were exposed to different environmental conditions obtained from 8 different archaeological sites across Anatolia region of Turkey. Contamination precaution was applied as per preservation of the ancient samples. PCR was done using X-STR kit from DNA samples and the success rates of DNA extraction methods following amplification were completed. After the ancient DNA analysis, morphological results were compared to PCR-based amplification results in terms of sex determination. Due to the good preservation of ancient samples and methods of DNA extraction and amplification performed, 25 of the 37 ancient samples (67.5%) could be amplified successfully. When anthropological sex determination was compared to molecular analysis, it was seen that 85% of the results were consistent. In this study, femoral and petrous bones had better results than the teeth samples. Based on the results of this study, we can say that at least two samples should be taken from each individual for ancient DNA studies to confirm molecular results. Molecular sex determination will be useful fragmentary human remains when it impossible, to determine an individual's sex from morphological features.