Towards Personalized Diagnosis of Glioblastoma in Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) by Topological Interpretable Machine Learning
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fast-growing and highly invasive brain tumor, which tends to occur in adults between the ages of 45 and 70 and it accounts for 52 percent of all primary brain tumors. Usually, GBMs are detected by magnetic resonance images (MRI). Among MRI, a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence produces high quality digital tumor representation. Fast computer-aided detection and segmentation techniques are needed for overcoming subjective medical doctors (MDs)
... dical doctors (MDs) judgment. This study has three main novelties for demonstrating the role of topological features as new set of radiomics features which can be used as pillars of a personalized diagnostic systems of GBM analysis from FLAIR. For the first time topological data analysis is used for analyzing GBM from three complementary perspectives—tumor growth at cell level, temporal evolution of GBM in follow-up period and eventually GBM detection. The second novelty is represented by the definition of a new Shannon-like topological entropy, the so-called Generator Entropy. The third novelty is the combination of topological and textural features for training automatic interpretable machine learning. These novelties are demonstrated by three numerical experiments. Topological Data Analysis of a simplified 2D tumor growth mathematical model had allowed to understand the bio-chemical conditions that facilitate tumor growth—the higher the concentration of chemical nutrients the more virulent the process. Topological data analysis was used for evaluating GBM temporal progression on FLAIR recorded within 90 days following treatment completion and at progression. The experiment had confirmed that persistent entropy is a viable statistics for monitoring GBM evolution during the follow-up period. In the third experiment we developed a novel methodology based on topological and textural features and automatic interpretable machine learning for automatic GBM classification on FLAIR. The algorithm reached a classification accuracy up to 97%.