A Semi-Supervised Transfer Learning with Grid Segmentation for Outdoor Localization over LoRaWans

Yuh-Shyan Chen, Chih-Shun Hsu, Chan-Yin Huang
2021 Sensors  
During the training phase of the supervised learning, it is not feasible to collect all the datasets of labelled data in an outdoor environment for the localization problem. The semi-supervised transfer learning is consequently used to pre-train a small number of labelled data from the source domain to generate a kernel knowledge for the target domain. The kernel knowledge is transferred to a target domain to transfer some unlabelled data into the virtual labelled data. In this paper, we have
more » ... is paper, we have proposed a new outdoor localization scheme using a semi-supervised transfer learning for LoRaWANs. In the proposed localization algorithm, a grid segmentation concept is proposed so as to generate a number of virtual labelled data through learning by constructing the relationship of labelled and unlabelled data. The labelled-unlabelled data relationship is repeatedly fine-tuned by correctly adding some more virtual labelled data. Basically, the more the virtual labelled data are added, the higher the location accuracy will be obtained. In the real implementation, three types of signal features, RSSI, SNR, and timestamps, are used for training to improve the location accuracy. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed scheme can improve the location accuracy and reduce the localization error as opposed to the existing outdoor localization schemes.
doi:10.3390/s21082640 pmid:33918695 fatcat:q6bvb7qztbdmfphat2umzupqfm