CardioXNet: A Novel Lightweight Deep Learning Framework for Cardiovascular Disease Classification Using Heart Sound Recordings

Samiul Based Shuvo, Shams Nafisa Ali, Soham Irtiza Swapnil, Mabrook S. Al-Rakhami, Abdu Gumaei
2021 IEEE Access  
The alarmingly high mortality rate and increasing global prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) signify the crucial need for early detection schemes. Phonocardiogram (PCG) signals have been historically applied in this domain owing to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In this article, we propose CardioXNet, a novel lightweight end-to-end CRNN architecture for automatic detection of five classes of cardiac auscultation namely normal, aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, mitral
more » ... on and mitral valve prolapse using raw PCG signal. The process has been automated by the involvement of two learning phases namely, representation learning and sequence residual learning. Three parallel CNN pathways have been implemented in the representation learning phase to learn the coarse and fine-grained features from the PCG and to explore the salient features from variable receptive fields involving 2D-CNN based squeeze-expansion. Thus, in the representation learning phase, the network extracts efficient time-invariant features and converges with great rapidity. In the sequential residual learning phase, because of the bidirectional-LSTMs and the skip connection, the network can proficiently extract temporal features without performing any feature extraction on the signal. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed end-to-end architecture yields outstanding performance in all the evaluation metrics compared to the previous state-of-the-art methods with up to 99.60% accuracy, 99.56% precision, 99.52% recall and 99.68% F1-score on an average while being computationally comparable. This model outperforms any previous works using the same database by a considerable margin. Moreover, the proposed model was tested on PhysioNet/CinC 2016 challenge dataset achieving an accuracy of 86.57%. Finally the model was evaluated on a merged dataset of Github PCG dataset and PhysioNet dataset achieving excellent accuracy of 88.09%. The high accuracy metrics on both primary and secondary dataset combined with a significantly low number of parameters and end-to-end prediction approach makes the proposed network especially suitable for point of care CVD screening in low resource setups using memory constraint mobile devices. INDEX TERMS Phonocardiogram analysis, unsegmented heart sound, cardiovascular disease, lightweight CRNN architecture, deep learning, SqueezeNet.
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3063129 fatcat:io5rva7lnnay5hkuft6sllqkz4