Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan
A Study on the Realization Process of Community Based Green Tourism in Candirejo Village, Borobudur, Indonesia
Introduction Research Background and Objective Candirejo Village is located about 3 km south east of Borobudur Temple, Indonesia. This village is now known as one of tourism villages in Central Java Province (1) as well as in Indonesia (2) . Candirejo Village is situated in the surrounding area of Borobudur Temple World Heritage Site, and the area is classified as cultural landscape heritage 1) and should be conserved 2) . Several NPOs, i.e. PATRA-PALA (3) and JAKER (4) , have tried to
... te with local community to carry out village revitalization programs to conserve and utilize village culture and landscape as an alternative solution for recent problems in Borobudur area such as environmental degradation, decrease of farming benefit, mass tourism which is concentrated in the Temple (5) . So, NPOs are encouraging the villages in the surrounding area to keep its scenery as cultural landscape around the Borobudur Temple. For instance, NRM-LCE (6) project that conducted by PATRA-PALA covered 10 villages scattered on the foot of Menoreh Hills, and JAKER is talking with almost 20 villages in Kecamatan Borobudur (Borobudur Sub District). Under such situation, only Candirejo Village implemented a concept of 'Community Based Ecotourism' which was titled by the village themselves, and became a tourism village managed by the 'Tourism Village Cooperation' (7) . Here we should know why only Candirejo could realize such program in their village while other villages in Borobudur Sub District could not achieve the same level. Green Tourism is one of important ways for village revitalization and it is necessary to know how it starts, so Candirejo can be regarded as a good case study. So, in this paper we would like to clarify the realization process of 'Community Based Ecotourism' in Candirejo Village, how it was managed and how the community mechanism worked. It also aims to clarify when the process have been certainly started, regarding to the common acknowledgement that it was started on 2001 when the assistance from PATRA-PALA supported by JICA, started. Literature Review on Study about Realization Process of Green Tourism Among green tourism studies in Japan, we can find very few researches on the realization process. Some papers 3) 4) commented that Green Tourism in Japan are mostly promoted by local government at first, but it is supposed activeness of community might be necessary to realize successful community based tourism. In this point Kim 5) reported about green tourism where tourism development in agricultural program took place with all farmers in mountainous rural area with Morimitsu Village case, Oguni Town, Niigata Prefecture. Takano 6) from Miyama Town local government just emphasized that before starting Green Tourism they had the period of farm land readjustment as collaboration establishment among villagers. From Kim and Takano, we can suppose that before starting Green Tourism with active community, there must be some activity which promotes collaboration among villagers. We will keep this supposed point in the analysis of Candirejo case. On the other hand, about Borobudur, research on Green Tourism was not found, though there are a number of researches on history, archaeology, architecture, etc.