Deglycosylated Products of Endogenous Digoxin-like Immunoreactive Factor in Mammalian Tissue
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) from adrenal cortex is an endogenous molecule with structural features remarkably similar to those of digoxin, a plantderived cardiac glycoside (Shaikh, I. M., Lau, B. W. C., Siegfried, B. A., and Valdes, R., Jr. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 13672-13678). Two characteristic structural and functional features of digoxin are a lactone ring and three digitoxose sugars attached to a steroid nucleus. Digoxin is known to undergo deglycosylation during
... in humans. We now demonstrate the existence of several naturally occurring deglycosylated components of DLIF in human serum. The components are identified as DLIF-genin, DLIF-mono, and DLIF-bis, corresponding to the aglycone, and the aglycone with one and two sugars, respectively. Similar components are produced by acid-induced deglycosylation of DLIF isolated from bovine adrenal cortex. The elution pattern and sequence of DLIF-deglycosylation was identical to that of digoxin suggesting identical sugar stoichiometry. However, analysis of these newly discovered congeners by reverse-phase chromatography, spectrophotometry, antibody reactivity, and kinetics of deglycosylation, demonstrates that subtle structural and physical differences do exist when compared to digoxin. DLIF was chromatographically distinct from digoxin, and interestingly, the mobility of the DLIF-genin was shifted toward increased polarity relative to digoxigenin. DLIF and DLIF-bis, -mono, and -genin congeners have absorbance maxima at 216 nm, whereas digoxin and its congeners absorb at 220 nm. Reaction with specific antibodies directed at the lactone portion of these molecules shows DLIF and its deglycosylated congeners to be 10 3 -fold less reactive than digoxin. Kinetics of sugar removal suggests that DLIF is 8-fold more susceptible to deglycosylation than is digoxin. Two less polar DLIF components produced from the DLIF-genin have max at 196 nm and are 4-fold less immunoreactive than DLIF. Our data suggest that subtle structural differences exist between DLIF and digoxin at or near the lactone ring as well as in the nature of the sugars. The presence of deglycosylated congeners of DLIF in human serum, including the less polar components, suggests in vivo deglycosylation of these factors. This is the first demonstration of the existence of naturally occurring deglycosylated derivatives of DLIF and establishes the likelihood of active metabolism of DLIF in mammals.