Cyclic AMP Inhibited Proliferation of Human Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Accompanied by Induction of p53 and p21

S.-i. Hayashi, R. Morishita, H. Matsushita, H. Nakagami, Y. Taniyama, T. Nakamura, M. Aoki, K. Yamamoto, J. Higaki, T. Ogihara
2000 Hypertension  
Although cAMP is an important second messenger that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of platelet aggregation and dilatation of blood vessels, little is known about the action of cAMP on the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Thus, we initially studied the effects of cAMP accumulation by using various cAMP stimulants, including a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor (cilostazol) on human aortic VSMC growth. Accumulation of cAMP inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor
more » ... rowth factor (PDGF)-stimulated VSMC growth in a dose-dependent manner (PϽ0.01), whereas PDGF significantly stimulated the growth of human VSMCs. Thus, we focused on the role of cell cycle regulatory genes, especially on a negative regulator, an anti-oncogene, p53. The protein of p53 was potentiated by cilostazol as well as forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP, whereas PDGF decreased p53 expression. Upregulation of p53 protein by cAMP was further confirmed by the observation that the decrease in p21, a p53-inducible protein, by PDGF was significantly attenuated by cilostazol in a dose-dependent manner (PϽ0.01). These results revealed that accumulation of cAMP inhibited VSMC proliferation, which was at least in part due to an increase in p53-p21 expression. Because p53 and p21 have been reported to induce apoptosis, we examined apoptotic cells for cAMP accumulation. Incubation of VSMCs with cilostazol resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic cells in a dose-dependent manner compared with vehicle treatment as assessed by nuclear chromatic morphology (PϽ0.01); forskolin also stimulated apoptotic cells. Consistent with nuclear staining, DNA fragmentation in VSMCs treated with forskolin as well as 8-bromo-cAMP and cilostazol was significantly increased compared with DNA fragmentation in VSMCs treated with vehicle, whereas PDGF significantly decreased the rate of DNA fragmentation (PϽ0.01). Overall, these results demonstrated that cAMP inhibited the proliferation of human aortic VSMCs, accompanied by p53-p21-mediated apoptosis. Analogues of cAMP that have direct inhibitory effects on VSMC proliferation can be considered as potential antiproliferative drugs against VSMC growth. (Hypertension. 2000;35[part 2]:237-243.)
doi:10.1161/01.hyp.35.1.237 pmid:10642304 fatcat:yriyliqtzvdynjlycteb2juvmq