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Time-independent square patterns in surface-tension-driven Bénard convection
Physics of Fluids
The transition between hexagonal and square patterns is investigated in laboratory experiments on surface-tension-driven Bénard ͑Marangoni͒ convection in a fluid of Prandtl number 81. As the Marangoni number M is increased, an ideal hexagonal pattern is supplanted by a defect-free square pattern; the transition occurs gradually with patterns of mixed hexagonal, pentagonal, and square symmetry arising at intermediate values of M. An elementary topological process associated with two-dimensionaldoi:10.1063/1.870120 fatcat:wiv6jo6atzei7kothn45f5gquy