Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of PM10 in a Green-Roof Primary School Building

Nikolaos Barmparesos, Dikaia Saraga, Sotirios Karavoltsos, Thomas Maggos, Vasiliki D. Assimakopoulos, Aikaterini Sakellari, Kyriaki Bairachtari, Margarita Niki Assimakopoulos
2020 Applied Sciences  
Research on air quality issues in recently refurbished educational buildings is relatively limited. However, it is an important topic as students are often exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in urban environments. This study presents the results of a 25-day experimental campaign that took place in a primary school located in a densely built-up area, which retains a green roof system (GRS). All measurements refer to mass concentrations and chemical analysis of PM10
more » ... iculate matter less than 10 micrometers), and they were implemented simultaneously on the GRS and within the classroom (C3) below during different periods of the year. The results demonstrated relatively low levels of PM10 in both experimental points, with the highest mean value of 72.02 μg m−3 observed outdoors during the cold period. Elemental carbon (EC) was also found be higher in the ambient environment (with a mean value of 2.78 μg m−3), while organic carbon (OC) was relatively balanced between the two monitoring sites. Moreover, sulfate was found to be the most abundant water soluble anion (2.57 μg m−3), mainly originating from ambient primary SO2 and penetrating into the classroom from windows. Additionally, the crustal origin of particles was shown in trace metals, where Al and Fe prevailed (9.55% and 8.68%, respectively, of the total PM10). Nevertheless, infiltration of outdoor particles within the classroom was found to affect indoor sources of metals. Finally, source apportionment using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model demonstrated six main factors of emissions, the most important of which were vehicles and biomass burning (30.30% contribution), along with resuspension of PM10 within the classroom from human activities (29.89% contribution). Seasonal variations seem to play a key role in the results.
doi:10.3390/app10238464 fatcat:ilm3ffbhkvc4jbdk7kawyilgmq