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In general, heart failure is the end-stage manifestation of cardiovascular disease and is an important and increasing cause of morbidity worldwide. Acute heart failure, whether of new onset or an exacerbation of chronic heart failure, causes sudden congestion, typically presenting as pulmonary oedema. The mortality associated with acute heart failure is extremely high. Potentially life-saving treatments and other burning issues are highlighted in this review.doi:10.4102/safp.v61i6.5063 fatcat:arq27fsf3fahlihqo5jt7aqllm