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Understanding interactions between volcanic eruptions and the cryosphere (a.k.a. glaciovolcanism) is important for climate reconstructions as well as for hazard mitigation at ice-clad volcanoes. Here we present unique field observations of interactions between snowpack and advancing basaltic lava flows during the 2012-13 eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Our observations show that lava-snow heat transfer is slow, and that styles of lava propagation control snowpack responses. 0doi:10.1038/ncomms6666 pmid:25514031 fatcat:nqd2zn733jdsrnhnmsmhtbwijm