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Protection for installations that have been modernized or retrofitted presents a unique mix of problems that require a different perspective from a new installation. The paper addresses lightning, transients, and radiation that cause problems on programmable logic controllers, distributed control systems, and remote electronic transducers. While complex grounding grids and networks were not required for analog systems, newer digital equipment requires a very effective means of maintaining equaldoi:10.1109/28.363051 fatcat:sbkxcadvvbczxbaa7tlfromnha