A Symphony of Signals: Intercellular and Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Circadian Timekeeping in Mice and Flies

Sara Hegazi, Christopher Lowden, Julian Rios Garcia, Arthur H. Cheng, Karl Obrietan, Joel D. Levine, Hai-Ying Mary Cheng
2019 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The central pacemakers of circadian timekeeping systems are highly robust yet adaptable, providing the temporal coordination of rhythms in behavior and physiological processes in accordance with the demands imposed by environmental cycles. These features of the central pacemaker are achieved by a multi-oscillator network in which individual cellular oscillators are tightly coupled to the environmental day-night cycle, and to one another via intercellular coupling. In this review, we will
more » ... iew, we will summarize the roles of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the regulation of circadian entrainment and synchrony within the mammalian and Drosophila central pacemakers. We will also describe the diverse functions of protein kinases in the relay of input signals to the core oscillator or the direct regulation of the molecular clock machinery.
doi:10.3390/ijms20092363 fatcat:a2m7wd3n2bc6zdluckvmyf25tu