1983 Journal of Crustacean Biology  
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more » ... of the gastropod shell-inhabiting tanaidacean Pagurapseudes largoensis McSweeny is described and compared with that of Heterotanais oerstedii (Kr0yer) and Neotanais micromopher Gardiner. This is the first such study of an apseudomorphan based on experimentally reared animals. P. largoensis is gonochoristic; two manca instars are typical of all tanaidaceans so far investigated. In females, the mancas are followed by two or possibly three juvenile instars (=neutra), one or two preparatory instars characterized by rudimentary oostegites, and a copulatory stage with complete marsupium. Laboratory maintained animals pass through up to three copulatory stages, each separated by a preparatory stage of one or two instars. A preparatory instar, characterized by very small rudimentary oostegites often restricted to thoracopods VI, sometimes occurs between the juvenile and normal preparatory stages. The small number of such field-collected specimens suggests that it is an abnormality. Males develop either directly from the manca 2 instar or from the first juvenile instar. Pleopods and heterochelae either accompany initial appearance of genital cones or appear after one or two additional molts. Males retain a full set of mouthparts, feed, and molt throughout their lives. Variability in the pattern of instar succession may be construed as a primitive trait and supports the position of the Apseudomorpha as least derived of the three tanaidacean suborders. Males alone are heterochelous; the right chela is always major and its growth is allometric with respect to carapace length. Intermolt period increases with age, from a 2-week mean for mancas 1 to about 4 weeks for preparatory and copulatory females and 7 weeks for large males, although minimum intermolt periods are similar for all stages (11-29 days). Longevity is estimated at up to 15 months for males and 9 months for females. The sex ratio for field-collected specimens is about 1:1. Females bear 4-17 offspring per marsupium. This content downloaded from on Thu, 12 Jun 2014 14:00:47 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions MESSING: POSTMARSUPIAL DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH IN PAGURAPSEUDES Gardiner (1975a) and Sieg (1972 Sieg ( , 1973Sieg ( , 1978. Briefly, tanaidomorphan and neotanaidomorphan species so far investigated are either gonochoristic or potential protogynous hermaphrodites. The former generally conform to the "normal type" pattern of Biickle-Ramirez (1965) and Sieg (1972, 1973, 1978). In the latter, both gonochoristic (primary) and protogynous (secondary) males exist. Gonochoristic males differ morphologically from males that have passed through an initial female stage; the latter also differ among themselves, depending upon the female stage from which they arise. Lang (1958) reported that in Sinelobus stanfordi (Richardson) the females gradually come to resemble the males. In other protogynous species, however, the change occurs in the course of one molt and generally follows the pattern described by Biickle-Ramirez (1965) for Heterotanais oerstedii (e.g., Neotanais micromopher Gardiner, 1975a; Leptochelia savignyi [Kroyer] and L. copulation, or embryonic development. It is also possible that the adaptations acquired with the occupation of gastropod shells have forced a departure from the basic apseudomorphan developmental pattern. This will be answered only by investigation of other genera and families. Developmental patterns in the Tanaidacea have recently been reviewed by
doi:10.1163/193724083x00058 fatcat:iz3meygzkffwjkunw52akart6e