Morphological and functional changes in coronary vessel evoked by repeated endothelial injury in pigs
Ž . Objective: We examined the morphological changes induced by repeated endothelial denudation in coronary artery CA , as well as functional changes in the endothelium-dependent and smooth muscle responses to various vasoactive agents during the process of intimal thickening. Methods: We observed vascular responses in denuded and non-denuded portions of pig CA while being fed a normal diet Ž . Ž . Ž . Ž . n s 11, N group or 2% cholesterol diet n s 25, C group to intracoronary acetylcholine ACh
... y acetylcholine ACh , 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT , substance Ž . Ž . v Ž P SP , and isosorbide dinitrate ISDN with and without the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor N -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester L-NAME, . 10 mgrkg i.v. over a period of 8 weeks. Balloon endothelial denudation of the left anterior descending CA was carried out every 2 w weeks. Results: In N group, maximum vasoconstriction was obtained with ACh 2 weeks after the first denudation 26 " 5% vs. 1 " 1% x pre-denudation, p -0.05 . L-NAME did not affect ACh-induced CA diameter changes. Thereafter, the response to ACh was attenuated by repeated denudation in N groups. However, the degree of 5-HT-induced CA narrowing at the denuded portion increased from 7 " 4% Ž . Ž .Ž . 0 week to 88 " 8% 8 weeks p -0.05 . The changes resulted in severe myocardial ischaemia, and suggested that endothelium-dependent vasodilation was progressively attenuated while hyperreactivity of vascular smooth muscle simultaneously increased. Vasodilation induced by SP was attenuated somewhat, but ISDN-induced vasodilation was preserved. Although mild hypercholesterolaemia was induced in C group, the vascular responses to these vasoactive agents did not differ from those of N group. Conclusions: Repeated CA endothelial injury and regeneration induce the change of morphology and vascular reactivity in the denuded portion regardless of atherogenic diet. This study strongly suggests that intimal thickening caused by repeated endothelial injury and regeneration induces specific vascular responses to vasoactive agents. Moreover, it is also suggested that during the progression of intimal thickening, increased vascular smooth muscle contraction and decreased endothelium-dependent dilation appear in a stimulus-dependent manner, often leading to severe coronary vasoconstriction accompanied with definitive ECG ST change. q 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.