Determining digital image origin using sensor imperfections

Jan Lukas, Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan, Amir Said, John G. Apostolopoulos
2005 Image and Video Communications and Processing 2005  
In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to use the sensor's pattern noise for digital camera identification from images. The pattern noise is extracted from the images using a wavelet-based denoising filter. For each camera under investigation, we first determine its reference pattern, which serves as a unique identification fingerprint. This could be done using the process of flat-fielding, if we have the camera in possession, or by averaging the noise obtained from multiple images,
more » ... hich is the option taken in this paper. To identify the camera from a given image, we consider the reference pattern noise as a high-frequency spread spectrum watermark, whose presence in the image is established using a correlation detector. Using this approach, we were able to identify the correct camera out of 9 cameras without a single misclassification for several thousand images. Furthermore, it is possible to perform reliable identification even from images that underwent subsequent JPEG compression and/or resizing. These claims are supported by experiments on 9 different cameras including two cameras of exactly the same model.
doi:10.1117/12.587105 dblp:conf/eiivcp/LukasFG05 fatcat:qvetowpzd5fmra7vxedaw2yh6q