Effects of Soil Nitrogen Addition on Crown CO2 Exchange of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. Saplings
The impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on carbon exchange between forest and atmosphere is one of the research hotspots of global change ecology, past researchers have extensively studied the impacts on leaf level, while the impacts on crown CO2 exchange are still unclear. Therefore, we explored the impacts of different nitrogen addition levels on crown CO2 exchange of Fraxinus mandshurica saplings and their responses to the changes of major meteorological factors (photosynthetically
... ve radiation, PAR; vapor pressure deficiency, VPD; and air temperature, Tair) with a novel automated chamber system. There are four levels of nitrogen addition treatments: control (no nitrogen addition, CK), 23 (low nitrogen addition, LN), 46 (medium nitrogen addition, MN), and 69 kgN·hm−2·a−1 (high nitrogen addition, HN). Our results showed that all nitrogen addition treatments increased daily average and accumulated gross primary production (GPP), crown respiration (R), and net crown CO2 exchange (Ne), especially at medium and high nitrogen levels. Similarly, maximum net photosynthetic rate (Nemax) and apparent quantum efficiency (α) were promoted. The change of Ne with PAR, Tair, and VPD showed that nitrogen addition postponed the appearance of photosynthesis midday depression. In addition, the monthly accumulation of R with all nitrogen addition treatments showed an increasing trend (June to July), and then decreased (July to September) during the growing season, while the Ne and GPP decreased gradually with seasonal vegetation senescence. Finally, the crown shifted from carbon sink to carbon source at the end of the growing season, however, the change under high nitrogen treatment occurred 3 days later. The crown CO2 exchange measurements provide a new perspective to better understand the response of forest ecosystem CO2 exchange to elevated nitrogen deposition and provide a basis for related carbon model parameter correction under the influence of nitrogen deposition.