Correlation Between Different Methods to Measure Microbial Translocation and Its Association With Immune Activation in Long-Term Suppressed HIV-1–Infected Individuals

María Abad-Fernández, Alejandro Vallejo, Beatriz Hernández-Novoa, Laura Díaz, Carolina Gutiérrez, Nadia Madrid, María Ángeles Muñoz, Santiago Moreno
2013 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes  
Microbial translocation (MT) has been proposed as one of the triggering mechanisms of persistent immune activation associated to HIV-1 infection. Our objectives were to determine the correlation between different measurements of MT in suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals and to evaluate its correlation with immune activation. Methods: Eighteen suppressed HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 + T-cell count above 350 cells per cubic millimeter and undetectable plasma viral load, included in
more » ... viral treatment intensification clinical trials, were evaluated. Samples obtained at baseline and at established time points during the trials were analyzed. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), and bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA), and markers of immune activation were determined. Results: We analyzed 126 plasma samples from the 18 patients. LPS significantly correlated with sCD14 (P , 0.001, r = 0.407) and LBP (P = 0.042, r = 0.260). Also, a significant correlation was found between sCD14 and LBP (P = 0.009, r = 0.325) but not between bacterial 16S rDNA and LPS, sCD14, or LBP (P = 0.346, P = 0.405, and P = 0.644). On the other hand, no significant correlation was found between LPS, sCD14, or LBP and CD4 + (P = 0.418, P = 0.619, and P = 0.728) or CD8 + T-cell activation (P = 0.352, P = 0.275, and P = 0.124). Bacterial 16S rDNA correlated with activated CD4 + T cells (P = 0.005, r = 0.104) but not with activated CD8 + T cells (P = 0.171). Conclusions: There is a good correlation in the quantification of LPS, sCD14, and LBP levels, but not with bacterial 16S rDNA, as measurements of MT. We are unable to ensure that MT directly triggers T-cell immune activation at least among these patients with relatively good immune recovery and under treatment intensification. FIGURE 1. Correlation between different measurements of MT. Significant positive correlation between A, plasma LPS levels and sCD14; B, LBP and sCD14 levels; and C, LPS and LBP levels. No correlation between D, 16S rDNA and LPS levels; E, 16S rDNA and sCD14; and F, 16S rDNA and LBP. Only significant data (P , 0.05) are showed with regression lines and correlation coefficients. The Spearman correlation test was used. FIGURE 2. Correlation between measurements of MT and immune activation. Activated CD4 + T cells significantly correlated with plasma 16S rDNA (A), whereas no correlation between activated CD8 + T cells and either LPS, sCD14, LBP, or 16S rDNA was found (B). Only significant data (P , 0.05) are showed with regression lines and correlation coefficients. Abad-Fernández et al
doi:10.1097/qai.0b013e31829a2f12 pmid:24047967 fatcat:fgcuzdyuz5h63ip2jz56ozy6nq