Physicochemical conditions of skarn formation in contact of the Alvand batholith with the meta-calcareous rocks, Hamedan, western Iran
Journal of Economic Geology
The Cheshin meta-calcareous rocks (Permo Triassic) in southeast Hamedan outcrop in association with a variety of pelitic schists and hornfels rocks. The intrusion of the Alvand Batholith (Jurassic age) into pelitic and calcareous host rocks has produced metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area (Cheshin village). On the basis of the dominance of calcite/dolomite, silicate and ore minerals, the calcareous rocks can be divided into two groups: a) marbles and calc-silicates; b) skarn rocks. The ore
... ies occur in a contact zone between sillimanite-hornfels and calc-silicate rocks and formed the skarn rocks. Based on mineralogy, skarn rocks in the studied area consist mainly of diopside, garnet, tremolite, vesuvianite, epidote and ore minerals (magnetite and hematite). The skarnification processes occurred at two stages: (1) prograde metamorphism; and (2) retrograde metamorphism. The first stage involved prograde metasomatism and anhydrous minerals such as garnet and pyroxene formed. Second stage of retrograde skarn development is also recognized. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Fe, along with volatile components were added to the skarn system. Consequently, considerable amounts of hydrous minerals, oxides and carbonates replaced the anhydrous minerals in the host rocks and hydrous minerals such as epidote+chlorite+amphibole formed. Using multiple equilibria by THERMOCALC® program, temperature (~630 ºC), pressure (~4 kbar), and fluid composition (XCO2 as low as 0.17) have been calculated for the formation of the calc-silicate rocks. Skarn mineralogy shows good agreement with these calculations.