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The period of relative peace in Europe since the end of the Second World War has been variously described as the 'Pax Europaea' and the 'Pax Americana'. These descriptions reflect two major theories purporting to account for the relative absence of armed conflict during this period: one emphasising the pacifying impact of the EU, and the other emphasising the pacifying impact of the US/NATO. The present paper attempts to evaluate these theories by comparing the role of the EU and the US/NATO indoi:10.31235/osf.io/ds8px fatcat:tfj4btq5sjeuvlxp55r2x73mii