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Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of zinc–nickel single-flow batteries (ZNBs) is an important problem in battery management systems (BMSs). A nonideal electromagnetic environment will usually cause the measured signal to contain nonnegligible noise and bias. At the same time, due to the influence of battery ageing, environmental temperature changes, and a complex reaction mechanism, it is difficult to establish a very accurate system model that can be applied to various complexdoi:10.3390/en15041537 fatcat:uw5qtnidrvg27hs5jqommhpxdq