Xeroderma pigmentosa with ocular association: Case report
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine
Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare, autosomal recessive disease caused by a defect in DNA repair. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum often have cutaneous and ocular sun sensitivity, freckle-like skin pigmentation, multiple skin and eye cancers, and, in some patients, progressive neurodegeneration. Xeroderma pigmentosum predominantly affects the ultraviolet (UV) exposed ocular surface, resulting in eyelid atrophy and cancers, corneal dryness, exposure keratopathy, and conjunctival tumors. General
... eatures included parental consanguinity (40%), familiarity (60%), onset of symptoms in the first 2 years (50%), malignant skin neoplasms (60%), and carcinoma of the tongue (20%). Among the ocular features, 50% of patients presented with photophobia. Lid freckles or atrophic skin lesions were seen in all patients. Lower lid tumours were seen in 30%, chronic conjunctival congestion in 40%, corneal opacification in 40%, squamous cell carcinoma of limbus in 20%, bilateral pterygium in 40%, and visual impairment in 50%. We report the clinical history and ocular pathology of a boy who is having xeroderma pigmentosum with ocular manifestations. The ophthalmic manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum are discussed and reviewed with respect to this report and other cases in the literature. These cases illustrate the role of DNA repair in protection of the eyes from UV damage and neuron degeneration of the retina.