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Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have required the automotive industry to consider more fuel-efficient powertrains and alternative primary sources of transportation fuels. Powertrain electrification and hybridization have rapidly become part of the portfolio of all major automotive manufacturers, ranging from hybrid-electric, to plug-in hybrid-electric, to battery-electric vehicles, to hybrid-hydraulic and hybrid-mechanical solutions. The increased complexity of thedoi:10.1007/s11783-015-0801-2 fatcat:obrda254uvc7jldtpuox6gdqra