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In wireless heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the spatial densification through small cells and the application of massive MIMO antenna arrays are key enablers for high data throughput, wider coverage, and improved energy efficiency (EE). However, ultra-dense deployment of small cells is envisioned to exacerbate network management and increase energy consumption in HetNets. To this end, this paper first identifies the peculiarities that make energy consumption one of the challenging problems indoi:10.1016/j.jestch.2020.05.001 fatcat:2qpnwyfenfhxhhztmhppl2xrfu