Phytochemical evaluation of Cucumis prophetarum: protective effects against carrageenan-induced prostatitis in rats
Phytochemical study of the MeOH extract of Cucumis prophetarum fruits (family Cucurbitaceae) by using different chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of three metabolites; spinasterol (1), cucurbitacin B (2), and 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin E (3). Their chemical structures were created on the basis of physical, chemical, spectroscopic data 1D (1H and 13C NMR), and 2D NMR (HSQC and HMBC), as well as similarity with literature data. Cucurbitacin B (Cu-B) (2) was found to be the
... s found to be the major constituent. Potential protective activities of MeOH extract, CHCl3, and EtOAc fractions and Cu-B were evaluated against carrageenan-induced prostatic inflammation in rats. Acute toxicity was assessed by evaluating LD50. Pretreatment with CHCl3 fraction and Cu-B ameliorated the rise in the prostate index and obviously protected against histopathological changes. Further, MeOH, extract, CHCl3, and EtOAc fractions as well as Cu-B significantly protected against oxidative stress in prostatic tissues. The anti-inflammatory activities of the extract, fractions and Cu-B were confirmed by ameliorating the rise in prostatic content of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS induced by carrageenan. In addition, the rise in the chemotactic factors were myeloperoxidase (MPO), F4-80, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was significantly hampered. In conclusion, three known compounds (1–3) were isolated from Cucumis prophetarum fruits. Cu-B (2) was the major identified compound. Particularly, CHCl3 fraction and isolated Cu-B exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced prostatitis. The anti-inflammatory activity can be attributed, at least partly, to inhibition of neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into prostatic tissues.