American Iron and Steel Works

A. L. Holley, Lenox Smith
1877 Scientific American  
itself a new channel. Through the repetition of this process the several old river beds, forming an irregular and some what complicated system, as we now find them, were pro duced. THE OUTPOURINGS OF THE VOLCANOES. In the meantime, the volcanoes along the crest of the Sierra for a distance of several hundred miles, belched forth at intervals showers of ashes, which, falling into the torrents along the mountain sides, were carried down and deposited in the channels of the rivers, already
more » ... rs, already partially filled up with gravel, clay and boulders, forming with the alumina and magnesia, brought down the massess of pipe clay with which the auriferous material is interstratified or overlaid. Follow ing these outpourings of ashes and this flow of other matter, came floods of lava and con g lomerate, which, running down the mountain sides, covered up, above a certain line of ele vation, both the pipe clay and the entire country, in many places to a great depth. OTHER EXAMPLES. relations, shows throughout a decrease of them, with de-I the supports being bars of different sizes, with bases, caps, crease of the length of equally thick bars; with reference to 'and nuts of homogeneous steel. The display consisted of moments of bars of equal len s: th, but different thickness, I Lake Superior, Lake Champlain, and Missouri ores, raw, there seem to be the most mamfold varieties. If, however, crushed, washed, and calcined; also loops, billets, pig, pud the maximum remanent moments be ranged according to the I dIe balls, blooms, rolled iron, blister bar, and ingots, some dimension-relation a, a conformity to law at once appears. of which were fractured, besides steel bars, sheets, and The maximum of remanent magnetism referred to unit plates. The central feature of the exhibit was a very grace weight of a bar is a constant function of the dimension-re-ful shaft composed of round machinery and" spindle" steel lation a. This function, with a = about 7, cuts the axis of surmounted with an ornamental cap and a pennant or guidon abscissre; below tnis value it is negative, above it positive. of steel. The height of the shaft, including the base, was 16 Above a = 7 it rises very quickly, turning its convex side to feet, the base being 5 feet in height, and composed of the axis of abscissre; this relation then reaches a maximum, square blocks and bars of die steel, the corner columns and the curve rises in less degree than before. The remabeing octagonal die steel and railway axles. The panels nent magnet isms are therefore greater, the longer the bars. of the base were formed of square, flat, round, "pivot, " The remanent moments in unit weight reached the remark-and "eye pin" shapes and sheet steel, both plain and able value 727, a value which is over 80 per cent. of the cor-hi�hly polished. Some very handsome specimens of responding induced moment, and far exceeds all hitherto bOiler and fire-box plate were also shown, bent cold in some observed moments. We must not here dwell on the relation cases, the most striking test being a plate 20 feet long. 32 of the remanent magnetism to the lengths of the bars, their inches wide, and t inch thick, tightly coiled in a roll of the thickness, and the magnetizing force, which are fully dis-same material. A number of large fractured bars, reaper
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican06091877-1184asupp fatcat:c7ogoyumhvdk5m5p7eh4rkfgjm