Identification of Sex from Foramen Magnum of Egyptian Skulls Using Three Dimensional Computed Tomography

Ragaa Darwish, Nagla Salama, Mohamed Elsirafy, Wael Kholeif
2014 Ain Shams Journal of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology  
All rights reserved. Abstract Sex determination from skeletons is an important research subject in forensic medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the sexual dimorphism in the Egyptian skulls based on foramen magnum and some cranial measurements. Methodology: The present study was performed on 100 adult Egyptian patients of both sexes. Multi-Slice Computerized Tomography (MSCT) scan were obtained and reconstruction of 3D models for the cranium was performed. Various parameters related to the
more » ... amen magnum, the right condyle and the left condyle were measured on virtual skulls of adult patients. Results: The mean length, width and area of foramen magnum were significantly higher in males(35.3 ± 1.9mm, 30.0 ± 1.9mm and 833.50±72.52mm 2 respectively) than in females(32.8 ± 2.5mm, 27.1 ± 2.4 mm and 699.90±92.09mm 2 respectively). The mean lengths of the maximum bicondylar distance, minimum intercondylar distance and maximum medial intercondylar distance were significantly longer in males(48.8 ± 2.3 , 17.2 ± 1.7 and 25.1 ± 2.4mm respectively) than in females (46.1 ± 2.2, 16.2 ± 1.8 and 22.7 ± 1.7mm respectively ). A significant difference between males and females was elicited regarding the length (24.8± 1.7 and22.7±2.2mm respectively) and the width (14.4±1.3 and 13.5±1.3mm respectively) of the right condyle. The equation which determines sex with high accuracy was the one made from the length of the foramen magnum, length of the right condyle and length of the left condyle, the accuracy reached 87%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that measurements of the foramen magnum and the condyles obtained using 3D CT and the equations acquired from them are reliable tools in sex determination.
doi:10.21608/ajfm.2014.19158 fatcat:ggcmhlbl3zck7lmiiffxtyycui