Comparative performance of imagicides on Anopheles stephensi, main malaria vector in a malarious area, southern Iran
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Jiroft district has subtropical climate and prone to seasonal malaria transmission with annual parasite index (API) 4.2 per 1000 in 2006. Anopheles stephensi Liston is a dominant malaria vector. The monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and irritability was conducted using discriminative dose as described by WHO. The IV instar larvae were collected from different larval breeding places and transported to the temporary insectary, fed with Bemax and then 2-3 days-old emerged and sugar-fed
... and sugar-fed adults were used for susceptibility and irritability tests employing WHO methods and kits to organochlorine (OC) and pyrethroid (PY) insecticides. Mortality rates of field strain of An. stephensi were 91.3 +/- 0.14 and 90 +/- 0.47% to DDT and dieldrin, respectively at one hour exposure time but was susceptible to all pyrethroids tested. The average number of take-offs per min per adult was 2.09 +/- 0.13 for DDT, 0.581 +/- 0.05 for dieldrin, 1.85 +/- 0.08 for permethrin, 1.87 +/- 0.21 for lambda-cyhalothrin, 1.53 +/- 0.13 for cyfluthrin, and 1.23 +/- 0.1 for deltamethrin. Currently, deltamethrin is being used for indoor residual spraying against malaria vectors in the endemic areas of Iran. The findings revealed that the main malaria species is susceptible to all pyrethroids including deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin but was tolerant to DDT and dieldrin. This report and the finding are coincided with results of previous studies carried out during 1957-61 in the same area. Irritability tests to OC and PY insecticides revealed the moderate level of irritability to DDT compared to pyrethroids and dieldrin. Monitoring for possible cross-resistance between OC and PY insecticides should come into consideration for malaria control programme.