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What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive-affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design principles: guided activity, reflection, feedback, control, and pretraining. Finally, we offer directions for future instructional technology research.doi:10.1007/s10648-007-9047-2 fatcat:nadbeukt5nartiqqggbcgmnvce