Hyponatremia in Elderly – Its Prevalence, Aetiology and Outcome
Annals of International medical and Dental Research
The most common electrolyte disorder in geriatric age group is hyponatremia thought to be responsible for increased mortality. Lack of data on the prevalence, etiology and outcome of hyponatremia in the elderly from the state of Uttarakhand led us to investigate the same on the elderly hospitalised in a tertiary care hospital in the state of Uttarakhand. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to find out the prevalence of hyponatremia in geriatric population, its etiology and outcome
... tiology and outcome in elderly population. Methods: This cross sectional observational study was carried on 526 elderly patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital over a period of 1-year. Demographic, clinical and outcome data of the elderly patients with hyponatremia was collected and efforts were made to elicit its etiology. Results: 240 of 526 elderly hospitalized were found to have hyponatremia; 136 (56.6%) were females. Diuretics were found to be the most common cause of hyponatremia, detected in 82 (34.2%) patients, of whom 28(27.1%) were hypovolemic and 54(56.8%) hypervolemic. Other potential causes of hyponatremia included respiratory infections (n=57, 23.7%), chronic liver disease (n=34, 14.1%), syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone SIADH (n=10,4.1%), malignancy (8.2%), low sodium diet (n=10,4.1%) and congestive heart failure (n=22,9.2%). Diabetes mellitus (33.7%) and hypertension (27.9%) were the most common co-morbidities associated with hyponatremia. Severe neurological manifestations were detected only in 25(10.4%) while the majority was asymptomatic or had minor symptoms pertaining to hyponatremia. Seventeen (7.1%) patients with moderate (n=12) and severe (n=5) hyponatremia succumbed. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is the major electrolyte disorder of the elderly, specially the females. It contributes to morbidity and mortality, however, the severity of hyponatremia is not related to an increase in mortality.