MiR-195 enhances cardiomyogenic differentiation of the proepicardium/septum transversum by Smurf1 and Foxp1 modulation
Cardiovascular development is a complex developmental process in which multiple cell lineages are involved, namely the deployment of first and second heart fields. Beside the contribution of these cardiogenic fields, extracardiac inputs to the developing heart are provided by the migrating cardiac neural crest cells and the proepicardial derived cells. The proepicardium (PE) is a transitory cauliflower-like structure located between the cardiac and hepatic primordia. The PE is constituted by an
... internal mesenchymal component surrounded by an external epithelial lining. With development, cells derived from the proepicardium migrate to the neighboring embryonic heart and progressive cover the most external surface, leading to the formation of the embryonic epicardium. Experimental evidence in chicken have nicely demonstrated that epicardial derived cells can distinctly contribute to fibroblasts, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, isolation of the developing PE anlage and ex vivo culturing spontaneously lead to differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes, a process that is enhanced by Bmp but halted by Fgf administration. In this study we provide a comprehensive characterization of the developmental expression profile of multiple microRNAs during epicardial development in chicken. Subsequently, we identified that miR-125, miR-146, miR-195 and miR-223 selectively enhance cardiomyogenesis both in the PE/ST explants as well as in the embryonic epicardium, a Smurf1- and Foxp1-driven process. In addition we identified three novel long non-coding RNAs with enhanced expression in the PE/ST, that are complementary regulated by Bmp and Fgf administration and well as by microRNAs that selectively promote cardiomyogenesis, supporting a pivotal role of these long non coding RNAs in microRNA-mediated cardiomyogenesis of the PE/ST cells.