Carbon-Aware Computing for Datacenters [article]

Ana Radovanovic, Ross Koningstein, Ian Schneider, Bokan Chen, Alexandre Duarte, Binz Roy, Diyue Xiao, Maya Haridasan, Patrick Hung, Nick Care, Saurav Talukdar, Eric Mullen (+3 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The amount of CO_2 emitted per kilowatt-hour on an electricity grid varies by time of day and substantially varies by location due to the types of generation. Networked collections of warehouse scale computers, sometimes called Hyperscale Computing, emit more carbon than needed if operated without regard to these variations in carbon intensity. This paper introduces Google's system for Carbon-Intelligent Compute Management, which actively minimizes electricity-based carbon footprint and power
more » ... frastructure costs by delaying temporally flexible workloads. The core component of the system is a suite of analytical pipelines used to gather the next day's carbon intensity forecasts, train day-ahead demand prediction models, and use risk-aware optimization to generate the next day's carbon-aware Virtual Capacity Curves (VCCs) for all datacenter clusters across Google's fleet. VCCs impose hourly limits on resources available to temporally flexible workloads while preserving overall daily capacity, enabling all such workloads to complete within a day. Data from operation shows that VCCs effectively limit hourly capacity when the grid's energy supply mix is carbon intensive and delay the execution of temporally flexible workloads to "greener" times.
arXiv:2106.11750v1 fatcat:dsxp2eh7undmlje3aigvvohaei