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The motivations for deploying energy and spectral-efficient network architectures are the high energy consumption and the need for more spectral resources in modern cellular networks. The key method to solve the energy efficiency EE maximization problem of the downlink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based massive MIMO system is to decouple it into user pairing and efficient power allocation problems. This work studies the performance of three main pairing methods in NOMA-based networks:doi:10.3390/app12115421 fatcat:ml62ucy57bbhtkf7r3avw3sesq