Clinicopathological Findings in Suspected Cases of Virus-induced Neoplastic Diseases in Commercial Layer Chickens in Nigeria
Nuhu Abdulazeez Sani, Chukwuebuka Iniobong Ugochukwu, Samson Eneojo Abalaka, Ahmadu Saleh, Muhammed Shuaib Muhammed, Sunday Blessing Oladele, Paul Ayuba Abdu, Celestine Njoku
The Journal of World's Poultry Research
Avian neoplastic diseases, including Marek's disease (MD), avian leukosis (AL), and reticuloendotheliosis (RE), are of economic importance in the chicken industry. However, it is difficult to differentiate MD from AL and RE by clinical signs and postmortem examination. Therefore, the present study aimed to classify the avian neoplastic diseases affecting commercial layer chickens in Nigeria using clinical history, postmortem examination, and histopathological technique. Carcasses of commercial
... ayer chickens from 7 and 20 poultry farms in Kaduna and Plateau States were studied, respectively, from February 2017 to March 2018. The age, morbidity, and mortality rates in each of the affected farms were determined. Detailed postmortem examinations were carried out on the carcasses from the affected farms, and organs observed to have neoplastic lesions were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. The age means of the affected layers were 20.6 weeks and 20.8 weeks in Kaduna and Plateau States, respectively. The average morbidity rates of neoplasm in the affected layers were 3.9% and 9.3% in Kaduna and Plateau States, respectively, while the average mortality rates were 8.6% and 8.5% in Kaduna and Plateau States, respectively. The clinical observation of affected chickens indicated that they were anorexic and emaciated. Generally, the neoplastic lesions were characterized by white to gray, multifocal, firm nodules of varying sizes on the affected organs. In Kaduna State, the neoplasms were commonly observed on the liver (85.7%), spleen (71.4%), heart (42.9%), and kidneys (42.9%), while in Plateau State, the affected organs included liver (50%), spleen (25%), proventriculus (25%) and lungs (25%). The histopathological changes in the affected tissues were similar and characterized predominantly by the infiltration of lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and macrophages. The patterns of distribution of the pleomorphic neoplastic cells within the liver were multifocal and perivascular in most cases. Findings from the current study indicated that cases of neoplasms in commercial layer chickens in Kaduna and Plateau States, Nigeria, could be attributed to MD. Keywords: Avian neoplastic diseases, Layer chickens, Pathology Many thanks go to MI Waziri, A Yakubu, and D Oshadu, whose close relationship with the farm owners/managers assisted a great deal in getting the cooperation of the farm owners/managers. Our appreciation also goes to late Bitrus Bako of blessed memory for his assistance with the preparation of the histopathology slides. Special thanks to MD Areo for proofreading the manuscript.