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In a functional linear model (FLM) with scalar response, the parameter curve quantifies the relationship between a functional explanatory variable and a scalar response. While these models can be ill-posed, a penalized regression spline approach may be used to obtain an estimate of the parameter curve. The penalized regression spline estimate will be dependent on the value of a smoothing parameter. However, the ability to obtain a reasonable parameter curve estimate is reliant on how muchdoi:10.3390/stats3040032 fatcat:nckn7hymrrg5xfrrwl4zhkykzi