The status of the eastern regions of the Caspian Sea in relation with Iran and Russia from Naser al-Din Shah to the Treaty of Akhal (1847-1881 AD)

Baqher Adelfar, Masoud Adinehvand
2017 European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences   unpublished
Foreign relations during the Qajar dynasty along the borders, especially with Russia and England, played an effective role in forming and orienting many events during this era. One of the most important borders of Iran is the Caspian Sea and its surrounding area. The Caspian Sea is the world's largest inland lake. Its climatic, geographical, and geological conditions make surrounding lands, including its eastern shores, very special. This has played an important role in creating the historical
more » ... vents in the region. The eastern regions of the Caspian Sea, the motherland of Turkmens, especially during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah, became very important for Russians. Thus, to achieve their own colonial desire and fulfill the testament of Peter the Great, they carried out military operations and spent considerable cost to enter Iran again. This incident left profound effects on the region. From a geo-historical viewpoint and adopting a descriptive-analytical method, this article examines the climatic characteristics and position of the eastern regions of the Caspian Sea. Then, it investigates the status of the previously mentioned regions in relations between Iran and Russia, in the era of Naser al-Din Shah. In addition, it deliberates the Russian colonial attempts to achieve their intent and Iranian reactions against them.