Role of Chemokines in Endocrine Autoimmune Diseases

Mario Rotondi, Luca Chiovato, Sergio Romagnani, Mario Serio, Paola Romagnani
2007 Endocrine reviews  
Chemokines are a group of peptides of low molecular weight that induce the chemotaxis of different leukocyte subtypes. The major function of chemokines is the recruitment of leukocytes to inflammation sites, but they also play a role in tumoral growth, angiogenesis, and organ sclerosis. In the last few years, experimental evidence accumulated supporting the concept that interferon-␥ (IFN-␥) inducible chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) and their receptor, CXCR3, play an important role in the
more » ... initial stage of autoimmune disorders involving endocrine glands. The fact that, after IFN-␥ stimulation, endocrine epithelial cells secrete CXCL10, which in turn recruits type 1 T helper lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 and secreting IFN-␥, thus perpetuating autoimmune inflammation, strongly supports the concept that chemokines play an important role in endocrine autoimmunity. This ar-ticle reviews the recent literature including basic science, animal models, and clinical studies, regarding the role of these chemokines in autoimmune endocrine diseases. The potential clinical applications of assaying the serum levels of CXCL10 and the value of such measurements are reviewed. Clinical studies addressing the issue of a role for serum CXCL10 measurement in Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and Addison's disease have been considered. The principal aim was to propose that chemokines, and in particular CXCL10, should no longer be considered as belonging exclusively to basic science, but rather should be used for providing new insights in the clinical management of patients with endocrine autoimmune diseases. (Endocrine Reviews 28: 492-520, 2007)
doi:10.1210/er.2006-0044 pmid:17475924 fatcat:elump7qs2ravhdphsiefhsgxpq