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Penalising Presence in Public Space: Control through Exclusion of the 'Difficult' and 'Undesirable
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy
Over the last two decades and across a number of jurisdictions, new measures enshrined in criminal law and administrative codes have empowered authorities to exclude unwelcome groups and individuals from public spaces. Focusing particular attention on recent reform in Britain, this paper traces the evolution of contemporary exclusionary practices, from their initial concern with proscribed behaviour to the penalisation of mere presence. The latter part of the paper offers a critical assessmentdoi:10.5204/ijcjsd.v6i2.299 fatcat:fxpkrckgpfazdmegccjx5j3qdq