Boron, Structure, Functions and Its Interaction with Nutrients in Plant Physiology. A Review
Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research
Boron is an essential trace element required for the physiological functioning of higher plants, considering as a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the metabolism and growth of plants. Boron is in many ways unique among plant nutrients; however, it is especially distinguished by the substantial differences among species in terms of mobility, the narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and differential inter-and interspecies response to an inadequate supply. Both boron deficiency
... th boron deficiency and toxicity may have detrimental effects on yield of various agricultural plants. Deficiency of boron in soil may reduce the yield productivity particularly for rice crops through increased panicle sterility; fewer productive tillers, shriveled grains, fewer chloroplasts, and lower net assimilate rates along with impaired grain cooking quality. Fertilization of boron may solve and improve boron deficiency. Such disorder pronounced more in the reproductive phase of plant life, particularly in species in which the element is phloem-immobile. Boron is involved in the structural and functional integrity of the cell wall and membranes, ion fluxes H + , K + , PO4 -3 , Rb + and Ca +2 across the membranes, cell division and elongation, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, sugar transport, cytoskeletal proteins, and plasmalemma-bound enzymes, nucleic acid, indole acetic acid, polyamines, ascorbic acid, and phenol metabolism and transport. . Boron has been associated with one or more of the following processes: calcium utilization, cell division, flowering /reproductive phase, water relations, disease resistance, and nitrogen (N) metabolism Review examined Boron functions in plants, deficiency and toxicity symptoms. Mechanism and transportation of Boron uptake particularly under low boron concentration. Several factors may occur for boron deficiency including soil characteristics such as, soil acidity and / or alkalinity, low organic matter content, and water deficit. The interaction between boron and other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium; and the availability and application of boron fertilizers.