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Recent methods have significantly reduced the performance degradation of Binary Neural Networks (BNNs), but guaranteeing the effective and efficient training of BNNs is an unsolved problem. The main reason is that the estimated gradients produced by the Straight-Through-Estimator (STE) mismatches with the gradients of the real derivatives. In this paper, we provide an explicit convex optimization example where training the BNNs with the traditionally adaptive optimization methods still facesarXiv:2009.13799v1 fatcat:oia2pd4pznellcg62rcyy3wkra